United Nations Environment Programme environment for development
Ecosystem Management
Ecosystem Management

Scientific evidence shows that ecosystems are under unprecedented pressure, threatening prospects for sustainable development. In Europe, factors including agricultural intensification, the destruction of habitats, pollution, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change pose threats to crucial ecosystems and the valuable services they provide.



While the challenges are daunting, they also provide opportunities for local communities, business and government to innovate for the benefit of communities, economies and the global environment. However, in order to secure the environmental conditions for prosperity, stability and equity, timely responses that are proportionate to the scale of the environmental challenges will be required. In creating such responses, governments, the international community, the private sector, civil society and the general public all have an important role to play.

UNEP’s work to strengthen ecosystem management in Europe includes:
  • Poverty-Environment Initiative
  • Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy (PEBLDS)
  • Projects on Lake Baikal
  • Projects on River Volga
  • The Carpathian Convention
  • The Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea (Tehran Convention)