UNEP and the Green Economy – Four Decades in Development

1993-2002

  1. 1995 Global Programme of Action (GPA) launched as a non-binding agreement to protect the marine environment from land-based sources of pollution.
    • Adopted by 108 Governments and the EU.
    • Only global initiative to address terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems.
  2. 1995 Basel Ban Amendment barring export of hazardous wastes adopted.
    • Ratified by 70 countries and the EU.
    • Established a regime for minimization of health and environmental impacts.
    • Created new, green economic opportunities.
  3. 1996 UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) entered into force.
    • 193 signatories.
    • 42 African National Action Programmes.
    • 5 Sub-regional Action Programmes.
    • Two thirds of African countries implementing National Forest Programmes (NFPs).
  4. 1998 Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade adopted.
    • 39 banned or restricted chemicals.
    • 146 parties to the convention.
    • 265 national implementation authorities established in 170 countries.
  5. 1999 UN Global Compact launched.
    • Over 8500 signatories from 135 countries working on sustainable and socially responsible policies.
  6. 2000 The Malmö Declaration adopted.
    • Call to action on international environmental governance.
    • Crucial input to UN Millennium General Assembly and Rio+10 summit.
  7. 2000 Millennium Declaration adopted: “ensuring environmental sustainability” as one of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
    • MDG 7 sets environmental targets.
    • Close to 87 % increase in access to drinking water. MDG’s 89 % target likely to be surpassed.
    • 94 million hectares increase in size of protected areas, covering 13 % of the world’s forests.
  8. 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) adopted.
    • 176 parties.
    • 18 chemicals listed targeted for elimination.
    • 15 centres for capacity building and technology transfer.
  9. 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development
    • Re-affirmed UNEP’s central role in sustainable development.
    • Linked poverty alleviation and environmental protection.
    • 2 new targets: To halve by 2015 people without access to basic sanitation; and to eliminate by 2012 destructive fishing practices.